Singapore was already on track to significantly exceed its very low targets for 2020 and 2030, without implementing additional measures. Singapore has updated its 2030 target by March 2020, but the updated target is not to increase climate action, unlike the Paris agreement that increased it. The government has converted its emission intensity target to an absolute emissions target of around 65 MtCO2e for 2030, 28% higher than 2014 emissions. The definition of new absolute goals is a positive step. The next steps are equally crucial: not only in promoting new national measures, but also in promoting international actions, for example on carbon markets, to enable CO2 offsets. The Singapore government`s definition of new absolute goals is a positive step in strengthening the narrative of denclimate measures and shaping transformation. Participants in the Kyoto Protocol negotiated with 41 industrialized countries (Annex I) in which binding emission reduction targets were adopted between 2008 and 2012. Singapore ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1997, acceded to the Kyoto Protocol in 2006 and also ratified amendments to the second commitment period (2012-2020) of the Kyoto Protocol in 2014. At the 21st UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP-21) in Paris on 12 December 2015, countries adopted the Paris Agreement, a universal and legally binding agreement to combat climate change after 2020. Singapore ratified the Paris Agreement on September 21, 2016 in New York, in addition to 30 other countries. The Paris Agreement came into force on November 4, 2016, 30 days after exceeding the ratification threshold and total emissions of more than 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions by the ratifying parties.
After three years of negotiations, the parties then agreed to conclude the Paris Agreement (PAWP) work programme, which sets out the modalities, procedures and guidelines for the implementation of the Paris Agreement, at COP-24 in Katowice, Poland. We look forward to the conclusion of discussions on the highlights of the PAWP at COP-26 in Glasgow, Scotland, in 2021. The Convention on Climate Change enjoys almost universal support, making it one of the most supported international agreements in the world by the United Nations. The Copenhagen climate change conference failed to reach consensus, but a number of developed and developing countries announced emission reduction targets by 2020. Prior to the UNFCCC climate conference in Copenhagen in 2009, Singapore committed to reducing our greenhouse gas emissions by 16% below the status quo (BAU) level by 2020, based on a legally binding global agreement in which all countries would implement their commitments in good faith. In accordance with the agreement adopted in Paris in December 2015, Singapore has committed to reduce our emission intensity by 36% by 2030 from 2005 levels and to stabilize our greenhouse gas emissions with a view to peaking in 2030. Thus, while some of them will argue that Singapore can do more in its global contributions to the fight against climate change, the fact is that the government has gradually set ambitious targets for itself and for the country. The key will be to continually improve these goals over the course of technology. In Warsaw, Poland, the contracting parties adopted a series of decisions, including a set of rules to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, as well as a mechanism to combat the losses and damage caused by the long-term effects of climate change. They also agreed to communicate their respective contributions to the global climate agreement in due course prior to COP-21 in Paris in 2015. At the UN climate change conference in Doha, the parties agreed on a new eight-year commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, agreed on a fixed timetable for the adoption of a universal climate agreement by 2015 and agreed on a